What is cIRcle?
cIRcle is UBC's Open Access Digital Repository (or Institutional Repository), established by UBC Library in 2007 for the University of British Columbia. Its aim is to provide a single place to access and view the breadth and scope of the intellectual work of UBC campuses.
cIRcle serves to disseminate and preserve the research activities of UBC's scholarly community. In addition to materials like preprints and postprints of academic journal articles, other items such as theses, dissertations, departmental publications, technical reports, bulletins, conference proceedings, course notes and other learning objects may be deposited into cIRcle.
Contributions to cIRcle are entirely voluntary.
cIRcle's main goals are:
- to showcase UBC's intellectual output by making the research carried out at UBC freely accessible;
- to support the teaching, learning and research activities on campus.
Note that digital repositories are also known as 'Institutional Repositories':
"An institutional repository (IR) is a digital collection of a university's intellectual output. Institutional repositories centralize, preserve, and make accessible the knowledge generated by academic institutions." (Canadian Association of Research Libraries)
See more information about cIRcle.
What is Open Access?
Open access material is freely and openly available to anyone on the web. Visit the UBC Scholarly Communications site for more information on Open Access
Why contribute to cIRcle?
- Uploading your scholarly work to cIRcle is simple as cIRcle staff provides step-by-step support.
- Search engines such as Google and Yahoo! crawl cIRcle regularly, increasing the visibility of your research by making it quick and easy for others to find and access your work.
- We record view and download statistics for each item in cIRcle so you can track interest in your work from around the world!
- We provide permanent URLs for each item in cIRcle. This means that there is no need to update the URL every time there's a website redesign--the links to your materials will stay the same over time.
Who can contribute to cIRcle?
cIRcle is an open access digital repository for published and unpublished material created by the UBC community and its partners. Exemplary student output that has been approved by a professor or instructor may also be added to cIRcle. It is not yet possible for cIRcle to accept content from UBC alumni, unless the content in question has been created in collaboration with a current UBC faculty or staff member. If you’d like to learn more about how to deposit your work in cIRcle, visit our Getting Started guides.
Who can help me if I have difficulties depositing materials in cIRcle?
For thesis submission inquiries, visit the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies website. Also, see Advantages of Electronic Theses listed on their website.
For other cIRcle-related inquiries, contact the cIRcle Office.
How will people find work that I deposit in cIRcle?
Web search engines make it quick and easy to find scholarly work deposited in cIRcle. Google, Google Scholar, and Yahoo regularly crawl and index cIRcle and other digital repositories around the world.
Your scholarly work is also searchable from the cIRcle homepage. The search interface supports Author, Title, Keyword, Abstract and full-text searches. Try a search now using cIRcle's Advanced Search feature!
Your department can add links to cIRcle from its homepage, and you can do the same from any personal webpage you may have set up.
Other online indexers or content harvesters like OAIster and CARL provide additional access to your materials. These services gather content into large databases that act like library catalogues. However, these all go beyond providing access to the holdings of just one institution. For example, OAIster provides access to more than 25 million records from 1,100 contributors (as of June 2013).
Privacy Notification: Your personal information (in the form of the IP addresses of the computers you use to access cIRcle) is collected under the authority of section 26(e) of the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FIPPA). This information is used solely to track usage statistics for the purposes of evaluating the geographical reach of UBC research made openly accessible via cIRcle. Questions about the collection of this information may be directed to ubc-circle[at]interchange.ubc.ca
Submissions to cIRcle must be the final clean copy of the submission. The file should not contain any annotations, comments, handwritten notes, or private information (eg. student number, phone number, fax number, personal email address or mailing address).
Do other universities have Institutional Repositories?
According to the Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) there are 85 open access/institutional repositories in Canada (as of June, 2013). Some examples are:
- MSpace, University of Manitoba
- UWSpace, University of Waterloo
- DSpace, University of Calgary
- YorkSpace, York University
- TSpace, University of Toronto
- QSpace, Queen's University
How do I create a cIRcle login?
- Go to https://circle.ubc.ca/
- Click on ‘Login’ (in left hand column of screen)
- Click on ‘… register for a cIRcle account’ in the right hand box
- Fill in the required fields.
- You will receive an automatic email message referring you to a specified URL to complete the registration process. Please do this immediately. If you delay too long you will get an ‘Invalid token’ error message. If you do get this message, please start the login registration process again from the beginning.
- Email the cIRcle coordinator when you have completed your login registration. If applicable, please include a link to the cIRcle collection to which you would like to submit your work. If you do not know the name of the collection, check the cIRcle communities and collections page or indicate that you require assistance in your email.
Once you have registered for a cIRcle login you can link your CWL to your cIRcle login. Thereafter you can use your CWL to login to cIRcle. Please note that this step is optional.
If you do not have a cIRcle login, you can register for one by following this link: How do I create a cIRcle login?. If you are submitting a thesis or dissertation, please follow the instructions provided by the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies .
To link your CWL to your cIRcle login, follow the instructions below:
- Go to the cIRcle home page and click on login under the My Account menu on the left-hand side.
- Login with your CWL
- Select the 'Profile' link in the left hand column
- Click the radio button next to 'Assign UBC CWL ID …'
- Click 'Update Profile'
From now on you can use your CWL exclusively. Your cIRcle login also remains valid. If you have any questions, please contact cIRcle staff.
How do I cite an item that I have found in cIRcle?
Always cite the published version if available, so the author(s) receives credit through databases that track citation counts (e.g. Thomson's Web of Science). Note that the page numbering of the cIRcle version may not correspond to the page numbering in the published version.
However, there may be circumstances where you need to cite the cIRcle version. Even if citing the cIRcle version, cite the published version as well so that the author(s) receive citation recognition, as mentioned. Cite the cIRcle version as follows:
Klinka, K., Varga, P. and Chourmouzis, C. (1999). Towards a quantitative classification of soil nutrient regimes in British Columbia : Comparison of regional studies. cIRcle: UBC's Digital Repository: Scientia Silvica Extension Series. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/2429/764.
To cite an unpublished work, such as a thesis or dissertation in cIRcle, use the same format:
Blackman, M. J. (2008). Achieving economic and social sustainability in the inner city: The role of business improvements districts. cIRcle: UBC's Digital Repository: Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) 2008+. Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/2429/2445.
The URI is the most important piece of the cIRcle citation, as it is a permanent (a.k.a. persistent) and unique link.
Parts of this FAQ adapted from Open Research Online, FAQ at: http://oro.open.ac.uk/help/helpfaq.html#How_should_I_cite_items.
How do I contact the author of a thesis or dissertation I found in cIRcle?
Due to privacy laws, we are not permitted to provide you with a student’s contact information. However, you may wish to contact the UBC Alumni Affairs Office since they may be able to contact this student on your behalf.
What are the functions of a collection administrator in a cIRcle community?
A collection administrator is authorized to perform a number of online functions within a specified cIRcle collection. These functions include:
- Editing a collection home page
- Adding or removing authorized submitters and/or reviewers for a collection
- Editing the item metadata (descriptive information) of a record already archived in the cIRcle database
- Including items from other collections (Item mapping)
Please see the Collection Administration user guides which describe the above functions in more detail.
Note: A collection administrator can perform the above functions only if their cIRcle login has been authorized to so do by the cIRcle Coordinator.
Why isn't my video/audio file streaming?
Video and audio files will stream 24 hours after they have been uploaded. If your video or audio file won't stream after this time period has passed, please contact cIRcle staff.
Why deposit in cIRcle? (Advantages)
I've already published it, so why should I put it in cIRcle?
- Web search engines such as Ask.com, Google, Google Scholar, and Yahoo crawl digital repositories regularly, making it quick and easy for anyone to find scholarly works in cIRcle.
- Google Scholar indexes vastly more open access than subscription-based articles - greatly increasing the likelihood that your work will be found and read. See Neuhaus et al (access for UBC members only).
- Other online indexers focus only on scholarly works held in digital repositories like cIRcle. These include, for example, content harvesters like CARL and OAIster.
- cIRcle's commitment to preservation means that every item deposited will be assigned a permanent URL that you can quote worry free. Where possible, files are migrated to newer formats so they remain readable over the long term. At the very least, files will be preserved in the original format deposited.
- Another benefit of depositing your scholarly works into cIRcle is that it is an open access repository. Open access refers to making digital information freely, instantly and unreservedly available to others. Allowing open access to your materials makes it cheaper and easier for you and your peers to exchange scholarly information. This does not mean, however, that you lose moral authority over your work. Users are obligated to acknowledge and properly cite your work.
- cIRcle allows a more comprehensive collection of scholarly works to be submitted than may be possible in the traditional publishing world. You can deposit copies of published articles and book chapters as well as unpublished work such as conference and working papers, reports, theses, dissertations, datasets, learning objects, multimedia materials, newsletters and administrative documents.
- By depositing scholarly materials into cIRcle, you place your work in the larger UBC context. In conjunction with other digital archives on campus, cIRcle's aim is to create as complete an archive as possible of UBC's intellectual output, thereby highlighting the university's unique contribution to the world.
Why is posting to cIRcle better than posting to a department or personal website?
Because of the services cIRcle provides:
- We maintain the cIRcle software (DSpace) and the servers on which materials are stored (including regular backups).
- We take care of indexing your materials to make them easily findable, and we work with you to ensure the presence of appropriate metadata for the same reason.
- We provide training and support to your department or research unit to enable you to contribute your materials to cIRcle.
- Web search engines such as Ask.com, Google, Google Scholar, and Yahoo crawl digital repositories regularly, making it quick and easy for anyone to find scholarly works in cIRcle. Repository content also receives high ranking in web search engine results.
- There are other online indexers that add to the visibility of materials deposited in cIRcle, for example content harvesters like CARL and OAIster, which index only materials held in digital repositories like cIRcle.
- Long-term accessibility & readability: We aim to preserve your work permanently. And we won't change URLs every time there's a webpage redesign - the links to your scholarly work will remain the same over time.
Visit OpenDOAR - Directory of Open Access Repositories to learn more about open access repositories.
Will the research impact of the articles I deposit in cIRcle increase?
Many scholars have found increased research impact when they deposit their articles in digital repositories like cIRcle. The Open Citation Project, carried out by Southampton University (UK) and Cornell University (USA), created an extensive bibliography on this topic: The effect of open access and downloads ('hits') on citation impact: a bibliography of studies. (Updated 2013).
Yes. Items deposited into cIRcle are given a permanent or persistent URL that will not break. You can cite it without worrying that the address will change at some point in the future. Each item in cIRcle has both a URL and a URI. The URI is the best one to use in links or citations. The following URL and URI both belong to the same item in cIRcle,
Atlas of British Columbia:
One of the main reasons for establishing cIRcle is to provide scholars at UBC with a digital repository where their work can be properly archived and exposed to a wider audience. This means that we are committed to ensuring that your work is accessible and readable for a very long time. We intend to keep current with technological change and, as far as is possible, to upgrade deposited materials to newer formats as required.
See cIRcle cIRcle Policies page section 4
How is cIRcle organized?
cIRcle is made up of Communities and Collections.
Communities could be UBC departments, labs, research centres, schools or other administrative units. The various communities oversee their own collections, set local collection policies and liaise with cIRcle staff.
Collections belong to a community (or multiple communities), and contain the individual items and files making up the collection. Here is an example:
Community: Faculty of Science
Sub-community: Dept. of Physics & Astronomy
Collection: Vogt Symposium
Individual item/file: The future of TRIUMF
Fore more examples see the cIRcle Communities and Collections List
What is a cIRcle Community?
A cIRcle “Community” is a unit at UBC that produces or sponsors the generation of digital materials resulting from research, teaching and academic support activities, has a defined leader, has long-term stability, and can assume responsibility for setting Community policies. Examples of communities may be departments, research centres, institutes, etc. Each community should, if possible, assign a coordinator to work with cIRcle staff. Groups that do not fall into this definition but wish to establish a cIRcle Community will be considered on a case-by-case basis by cIRcle staff.
What are the rights and responsibilities of cIRcle staff?
What software does cIRcle use?
cIRcle uses software called DSpace. DSpace is an open source system designed to allow digital files to be archived, managed and shared. DSpace was developed jointly by MIT and Hewlett-Packard.
Some benefits of using DSpace include (per DSpace website):
- Getting your research results out quickly, to a worldwide audience;
- Reaching a worldwide audience through exposure to web search engines such as Google;
- Archiving and distributing material you would currently put on your personal website, blog, etc.;
- Keeping track of your own publications/bibliography; and,
- Having a persistent network identifier for your work, that never changes or breaks
Who is responsible for managing cIRcle?
cIRcle is managed by the cIRcle Coordinator at UBC Library.
In addition, a cIRcle community generally has a collection administrator who sets community policies, educates community submitters about these policies, and works with cIRcle staff.
The community decides on a submission workflow process for each collection under its authority. Each collection is directed by its community's overall policies which, in turn, are governed by cIRcle policies.
DSpace was one of the first digital archiving systems available to the open source community.
It first emerged in 2002. Currently, there are well over 1100 DSpace repositories, including many academic ones, in more than 80 countries using the DSpace to manage their digital repositories (aka Institutional Repositories).
The widespread adoption of DSpace has allowed for a large community of users to apply uniform standards to their digital repositories. In addition, its popularity has meant that DSpace has been able to develop sophisticated IT support systems for both users and administrators.
See DSpace Wiki for more general information about DSpace.
Copyright, permissions and re-use
What are permissions, and when do I need to get them?
Permissions are something you need to get if you've included materials within your own work(s) that are the intellectual property of someone else - for example, video or music clips, digital images, artwork and/or written materials.
In order to use works or parts of works for which you do not own the copyright, you must first identify, contact and receive permission from the legal copyright owner.
Using includes: embedding others' works into your own work (e.g. including a digital image in your PowerPoint presentation, an illustration or an audio file on your course webpage, etc.) and displaying, distributing and/or reproducing them in some way.
You need to obtain any necessary permissions prior to depositing your work into cIRcle. (Your publisher has these same requirements prior to publishing your work). Visit the Copyright at UBC website for more information on obtaining permission Copyright at UBC FAQ. For help obtaining permissions email email@example.com.
Please note that for published articles, permissions for self-archiving can take many weeks to obtain. These permissions typically require the permissions team to submit a special request to the publisher, and many publishers take at least 4-8 weeks to respond. Since the practice of self-archiving is still relatively new, moreover, some publishers do not have established policies for dealing with these requests, and permission can take months to obtain in these cases.
You may also be interested in learning about Creative Commons Licenses which allow authors to stipulate how others can share, remix, or reuse their work Creative Commons Licenses.
See an example of a Creative Commons License in cIRcle. (Click on 'Creative Commons' hyperlink under the section which reads, "The following license files are associated with this item.")
What is copyright?
According to the Canadian Intellectual Property Office for Industry Canada, copyright means 'the right to copy'. Only the owner of copyright, very often the creator of the work, is allowed to produce or reproduce the work in question or to permit anyone else to do so.
Copyright law rewards and protects your creative endeavour by giving you the sole right to publish or use your work in any number of ways. You may also choose not to publish your work and to prevent anyone else from doing so.
Please refer your copyright questions to firstname.lastname@example.org.
What is intellectual property?
Intellectual property (IP) refers to works you have created or produced in some tangible form.
The important thing to remember about IP is that ideas themselves cannot be copyrighted. Therefore, your brilliant idea is only awarded legal protection once you have put it into a tangible form like print, audio files, video, photos, etc. The areas of Canadian law that relate to IP issues include copyright, patents and trademarks.
Fore more information read UBC's Intellectual Property Guide available on the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies' website. Please refer any questions about copyright to email@example.com.
Who owns copyright?
In general, the author or creator of a work owns the copyright. Per the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (Industry Canada) website, exceptions to this rule are:
1. if you produced the materials as part of your employment, unless you have an agreement to the contrary. At UBC, faculty, staff and students will generally own the copyright in works they create through teaching and research, with certain exceptions. Please refer to the Copyright at UBC site for more details.
2. if you produced the work as a commission for another party;
3. if you voluntarily assign your copyright to a third party such as a publisher.
In cIRcle, authors can select and attach a Creative Commons License to their work thus stipulating how others can share, remix, or reuse their work. Learn more about Creative Commons License Conditions.
You may also wish to read UBC's Intellectual Property Guide available on the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies' website.
Do I sign over my copyright when I deposit my works in cIRcle?
No, the copyright status of your work remains the same.
- make your work freely available to cIRcle's users
- preserve your work by migrating it into newer formats as technology changes
See more information about the Distribution License.
For the most current statement and guidelines on copyright see the official Copyright at UBC site.
Can I re-use materials that I find in cIRcle?
All materials in cIRcle are protected by copyright and may be re-used under the terms of Canadian copyright legislation. Copyright protection arises automatically upon creation of an original literary or artistic work. For more information about copyright and re-use, please see UBC's copyright basics.
Note that some authors/copyright holders choose to make their materials in cIRcle available under a Creative Commons license. This is indicated by a 'Creative Commons' link in the cIRcle record. For an example, see: http://hdl.handle.net/2429/25033 The Creative Commons link appears below the 'Files in this item' section at the bottom of the record.
Authors' rights and responsibilities
Can I restrict who views my work after it's been deposited into cIRcle? Can I restrict how my work is used?
We understand, however, that there may be instances where it is necessary and desirable to restrict access to specific works temporarily, and we will accommodate this need as far as possible. If you need to impose an embargo on your work, please contact the cIRcle coordinator.
In general, though, it will be permissible for users to read, download, copy, search, print, distribute and/or link to materials contained in the repository.
NOTE, however, that authors do retain moral authority over their work(s), and thus their works must be properly attributed and cited when used by other parties. Specifically: authors, titles and full bibliographic details must be quoted, the hyperlink and/or URL must be given for the original metadata page (the page that provides descriptive data about your materials) and the content cannot be altered in any way.
Visit the UBC Scholarly Communications website for details about managing your copyright.
See also our FAQ How do I cite an item that I have found cIRcle?
What version of an article can I deposit in cIRcle? Can I deposit an article at the time of submission to the publisher?
This depends on your publisher. Publishers often permit authors to self-archive the final pre-publication version of their works, but this is not a universal practice.
Of course, if you own copyright of your work, you can post whatever version you prefer though it is important to remember that some publishers do consider depositing to a digital repository to be "prior publication".
Check the SHERPA/RoMEO website for publishers' copyright and self-archiving policies (or check your own publisher's website). When in doubt, it is best to contact the publisher directly.
For more information about copyright and publishers' agreements, visit Copyright at UBC.
You may also find the related FAQs helpful in answering your questions:
- Who owns copyright?
- Will I be violating my copyright agreements with my publishers if I contribute published material to cIRcle?
Will I be violating my copyright agreements with my publishers if I contribute published material to cIRcle?
This will depend on the publication agreement you signed with your publisher. Please check your copy of the agreement.
You can also check the SHERPA/RoMEO website for publishers' copyright and self-archiving policies to find permissions normally given to the author as part of each publisher's copyright transfer agreement. You can also write directly to the publisher for permission to contribute your article to cIRcle.
For help with publishers' agreements and permissions, contact Copyright at UBC.
Deposit and removal of materials
Who can help me if I have difficulties depositing materials in cIRcle?
The cIRcle community to which you belong likely has a collection administrator who can assist you. Please contact your collection administrator first (check with your academic or research unit's secretarial, web support, or communications staff, or ask cIRcle staff.
For thesis submission inquiries, visit the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies website. Also, see Advantages of Electronic Theses listed on their website.
For other cIRcle-related inquiries, you may also contact the cIRcle staff.
Are cIRcle submissions peer-reviewed?
There is no cIRcle policy requiring or implementing a peer-review process prior to submitting work into cIRcle. Each cIRcle community is responsible for establishing its own policies regarding submissions, and it may be that some communities will choose to establish some kind of a peer-review process.
When uploading items to cIRcle, the online submission form contains a 'Peer-Review Status' indicator for which the value 'Unreviewed' or 'Reviewed' must be selected. The 'Reviewed' status generally refers to a scholarly work such as a journal article or a manuscript that has been through a publisher's stringent review process. An 'Unreviewed' item has not been peer-reviewed.
You can, of course, deposit a copy of your work that has already been peer-reviewed, provided you have the rights to do so. This will depend on the publication agreement you signed with your publisher. Please check your copy of the agreement. You can also check the SHERPA/RoMEO website for publishers' copyright and self-archiving policies to find permissions normally given to the author as part of each publisher's copyright transfer agreement.
For more information about peer-review content in cIRcle, please contact cIRcle staff.
How should I name my file?
Before depositing your material to cIRcle, please review our cIRcle File Naming Conventions Guide for best practices.
PDF format is preferred for documents but cIRcle staff can convert files to PDF on your behalf if needed. For details about other file formats currently supported, please ask cIRcle staff.
Can I remove or edit material from cIRcle?
cIRcle provides a permanent archive for UBC research and teaching materials and items may not normally be removed from cIRcle. They may, however, be withdrawn for specific reasons outlined in the cIRcle Policies section 6. b
Withdrawn items are not deleted per se, but are removed from public view. Withdrawn items' identifiers/URLs are retained indefinitely, although no longer accessible to the public.
Changes to deposited items are not permitted.
- If necessary, an updated version may be deposited.
- If you notice a typo in the author name or title, please notify the cIRcle Office.
- For inquiries regarding theses and dissertations, contact the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies at UBC Vancouver or the College of Graduate Studies at UBC Okanagan.
For additional information see the cIRcle Policies page.
What if I don't see my thesis or dissertation in cIRcle?
When your thesis meets Graduate Studies' requirements, you will receive an email notification that it has been added to cIRcle, UBC's Digital Repository. It may take 3-5 days after you receive this notification before it appears in the repository.
If you submitted a thesis or dissertation at UBC Vancouver prior to 2008 and do not see it in the repository, please contact Chris Hives, University Archivist and project manager for the Retrospective Theses and Dissertations, 1919-2007 project.
Can someone from outside UBC submit materials to cIRcle?
No. Items may only be deposited by accredited members of the University of British Columbia, or its designated affiliates, agents, and partners.
A work that has been co-authored by UBC and non-UBC authors may be deposited by the UBC author(s) (provided any necessary copyright permission has been obtained).
Do I have to supply metadata (descriptive data) for materials I deposit in cIRcle?
Yes, and it's simple - you fill out basic descriptive information about your work (Author, Title, Keywords, etc.) on the online submission screen as part of the process of depositing your file(s) into cIRcle.
If cIRcle staff are uploading the deposit on your behalf, you may wish to provide your cIRcle contact with metadata such as the preferred entry of your name.
The metadata and text is indexed and searchable by Internet search engines such as Google, Google Scholar, etc. This enables students, faculty, researchers, and others around the world to find your scholarly work.
Fore more information see our FAQ What is metadata?
See an example of a metadata record in cIRcle.
How do I deposit a file in cIRcle?
If you have already registered for a cIRcle login and been authorized by the cIRcle coordinator to deposit to a collection, go the cIRcle homepage and click on Login to start a new submission. From there, you can follow the instructions in the online submission form. For assistance with this process, please view our User Guides or contact cIRcle staff for assistance.
For thesis submission inquiries, see the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies Electronic Submission Guide.
- Getting Started with cIRcle
- How do I create a cIRcle login?
- Who can help me if I have difficulties depositing materials into cIRcle?
How long will it take before a deposited file shows up in cIRcle?
It depends on the submission and review process that has been established by the particular cIRcle community/collection into which you will be depositing your scholarly work. Please contact cIRcle Staff.
What is a "checksum?"
cIRcle generates an MD5 checksum for every file it stores; we use this checksum internally to verify the integrity of files over time (a file's checksum shouldn't change). You can use this checksum to be sure what we've received is indeed the file you've uploaded.
If you wish to verify the file using checksums, click "Show checksums" on the "Uploaded File" page. The cIRcle-generated MD5 checksum for every file we've received from you will show to the right of the filename.
You will then need to use a local program to generate your own checksum for these files, and verify that your results match ours. On most UNIX-like systems (including Mac OS X), use md5sum. For instance, type "md5sum MYFILE" for every file you want to check; the summary should print on your screen. For Windows machines, MD5 tools are freely available: try md5 (from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/), or md5sum, available via the textutils package in Cygwin (http://www.cygwin.com/).
All of these utilities will need to be run from a command-line, or terminal, window. The entire digest printed out when you run the md5 tool on your local copy of the file you're uploading should be exactly equal to what cIRcle reports.
What is metadata?
In general, there are three types of metadata regarding archived works or content - namely, Descriptive Metadata (describes an item); Administrative Metadata (used to preserve metadata, provenance and authorization policies of an item); Structural Metadata (provides information about how to present an item and an item's associated file(s) to the end-user).
Metadata, at its simplest, means "structured data about data." It is "descriptive information about an object or resource whether it be physical or electronic" as per the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative with its aim to "mak[e] it easier to find information".
In cIRcle, it refers to the information you provide to describe your work (that is, the content) that you are depositing. Some of the required metadata fields are, for example, Author/Creator, Title, Language, Type, Affiliation, and so forth. As a result, Internet search engines such as Google, Google Scholar, and others crawl and index cIRcle regularly, making it quick and easy for anyone to find your scholarly work.
See example of a metadata record in cIRcle.
What types of materials can I deposit in cIRcle?
In terms of content:
- Conference and workshop papers
- Research papers (pre- and post-prints)
- Unpublished reports and working papers
- Books, chapters and sections
- Learning objects
The work must be contributed in digital form and should be complete and ready for viewing and uploading at the time of submission. UBC Library's Digitization Centre offers digitization services on a case by case basis. To request digitization assistance, please submit a Digitization Project Proposal Form. Video and audio files must be in an encoded format such as MP4, MP3, MOV, AVI or WAV. cIRcle staff cannot accept unencoded DVDs or CDs at this time.
If an item (or submission) is made up of multiple files, all of the digital pieces must be provided as a set - for example, a PDF document with its associated data file(s).
The author/owner should be willing and able to grant cIRcle with his/her permission to preserve and distribute his/her scholarly work. The author must have copyright permission, or general approval must be obtained from the publisher, if applicable.
If the work is part of a series or set of related works, the other works in that series should, if possible, also be contributed so that cIRcle can offer as full a set as possible.
In terms of file formats:
We provide support for as many file formats as possible as long as an appropriate file viewer for the submitted content is freely available on the Internet. Over time, items stored in cIRcle will be preserved as is, using a combination of time-honored techniques for data management and best practices for digital preservation.
As for specific formats, however, the proprietary nature of many file types makes it impossible to give guarantees. Given the problems with preserving proprietary file formats, we strongly encourage cIRcle submitters to use open file formats such as PDF (Portable Document Format), ODF (OASIS Open Document Format), PNG (Portable Network Graphics), etc. whenever possible.
Put simply, our policy for file formats is:
- Everything stored in cIRcle will be retrievable.
- We will recognize as many file formats as possible.
- We will support as many known file formats as possible.
When a file is uploaded to cIRcle, we assign it one of the following categories:
- Supported : we fully support the format
- Known : we recognize the format, but cannot guarantee full support
- Unsupported : we cannot recognize a format; these will be listed as "application/octet-stream", aka 'Unknown'
For more information see the cIRcle Policies page
How large can a file be?
You can upload files under 1GB. For larger files, contact cIRcle staff.